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Jun 17, 2022

Medicinal Uses and Side Effects of Chloramphenicol

Infections caused by bacteria can be treated with chloramphenicol, an antibiotic. This involves the treatment of conjunctivitis with an eye ointment. Plague, typhoid fever, meningitis, and cholera can all be treated with it, whether orally or intravenously. Only in cases where safer antibiotics cannot be utilised is its oral or intravenous administration recommended. Prescription drugs and cell counts should be monitored every two days while on therapy.

Diarrhoea, nausea, and bone marrow suppression are all common adverse effects. Treatments should be as brief as feasible in order to minimise the chance of negative effects. Lower doses may be required for those with liver or kidney issues. Gray infant syndrome, which causes a low blood pressure and bloated stomach in young children, is one possibility. Use during pregnancy and lactation is generally discouraged, especially near the end. An antibiotic with a wide spectrum of activity, chloramphenicol prevents the formation of bacteria's proteins, therefore halting their growth.

Chloramphenicol was found in 1947 when Streptomyces venezuelae was isolated and identified as the source of the antibiotic. It was initially produced in 1949 after its chemical structure was discovered. It is included on the WHO's Essential Medicines list. There are generic versions of this drug that are available with the most prominent as well as noted Chloramphenicol supplier in Gujarat - Centurion Healthcare.

Medical uses:

Because of the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi, chloramphenicol is rarely used to treat typhoid anymore unless in cases where the organism is known to be sensitive.

Although chloramphenicol is no longer recommended as the first-line treatment for meningitis in low-income countries, the WHO acknowledges that it might be used with caution if there are no other options.

During the last decade, chloramphenicol has been re-evaluated as a viable treatment for systemic infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. More than eighty percent of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains have been tested in vitro and found to be active.

A 2017 systematic analysis revealed moderate evidence that administering chloramphenicol eye drops in conjunction to an antibiotic injection lowers the incidence of endophthalmitis, a complication following cataract surgery.

Side Effects:

Systemic administration of chloramphenicol is associated with serious adverse effects on the blood. It has been reported since 1982 that chloramphenicol can cause deadly aplastic anaemia when taken with cimetidine. Even if the medicine is used topically, this side effect can still occur because of the drug's systemic absorption following topical application.

There are two types of blood dyscrasias caused by chloramphenicol. Predictable, dosing-reliant, and reversible, this type is more common. In addition, it induces thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. An idiosyncratic reaction occurs later and is more likely to be lethal if pancytopenia has developed. Such a type has no control over how much medication is administered and is therefore completely unpredictable. Because bacteria and mitochondria share ribosome structures, aplastic anaemia appears to be caused by chloramphenicol's influence on ferritin concentrations in the mitochondria being depleted. This makes the mitochondria vulnerable to the drug's capacity to block protein synthesis. Leukemia has also been linked to chloramphenicol-induced aplastic anaemia. Hence, you can place a bulk order for Chloramphenicol with Centurion Healthcare - an excellent as well as the most distinguished Chloramphenicol supplier in Vadodara.

In addition to inducing deadly aplastic anaemia and bone marrow suppression due to chloramphenicol's ototoxicity, gastrointestinal symptoms such as oesophagitis, neurotoxicity, and severe metabolic acidosis can also occur.

Chloramphenicol-induced optic neuritis is the most prevalent neurotoxic side effect. Acute or subacute vision loss, as well as probable fundal abnormalities, are the most common symptoms of this side event. Additionally, peripheral neuropathy may be present, which can cause numbness or tingling in the hands and feet. As soon as optic neuropathy develops, the medicine should be stopped immediately. This usually results in some degree of vision restoration, though it is not always possible.